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Defining an Aging Population and Identifying The Core Issue

Taiwan is facing a demographic challenge that could have profound implications for its economy. The nation’s aging population, driven by low birth rates and increasing life expectancy, is creating potential economic headwinds. In this article, we will delve into the impact of Taiwan’s aging population on its economy and explore the perspectives of people in Taiwan on this issue.

The Taiwanese government’s National Development Council (NDC) has projected that by 2026, the proportion of the population aged 65 and older will reach 20%, earning Taiwan the status of an “aged society.” According to the World Bank, Taiwan’s fertility rate has declined from 1.84 in 2000 to 1.07 in 2020, well below the replacement rate of 2.1 necessary to maintain a stable population.

“The declining birth rate is a significant challenge. It means a shrinking labor force, which can lead to a lack of innovation and competitiveness,” said Dr. Chen Hui-ching, an economics professor at the National Taiwan University (source: South China Morning Post). This labor shortage could slow economic growth, dampen productivity, and strain public finances.

Effect of an Aging Population on Society

The aging population is also expected to increase demand for healthcare and social services. According to a study by the Taiwan Institute of Economic Research (TIER), healthcare spending could increase from 6.2% of GDP in 2020 to 8.4% by 2030. Moreover, the study highlights the growing demand for long-term care services and geriatric specialists.

Lin Chih-hao, a 68-year-old retired engineer, expressed his concerns about the impact of the aging population on Taiwan’s pension system. “I worry about the financial sustainability of our pension system. With fewer young people contributing and more elderly people receiving benefits, there’s a real risk of it collapsing,” Lin said (source: Taiwan News).

Actions We Are TakingĀ 

To address these challenges, the Taiwanese government has implemented various measures, including encouraging companies to hire older workers and promoting automation and artificial intelligence to alleviate the labor shortage. Additionally, the government has implemented policies to boost birth rates, such as providing childcare subsidies and increasing parental leave.

However, some experts believe that more needs to be done. “While these measures are a step in the right direction, Taiwan needs to be more proactive in attracting skilled immigrants and investing in education and vocational training to ensure a competitive and adaptable workforce,” said Dr. Lai Su-ling, a demographer at the Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research (source: Focus Taiwan).


In conclusion, Taiwan’s aging population presents significant challenges to its economy, including a shrinking labor force, increased healthcare spending, and concerns about the sustainability of its pension system. To mitigate these impacts, the government must continue to adopt innovative policies and invest in long-term solutions to ensure economic stability and sustainable growth.


South China Morning Post: “Taiwan’s population drops for first time on record as birth rate falls and ageing takes hold.”

World Bank: “Taiwan Fertility Rate.”

Taiwan Institute of Economic Research (TIER): “The Impact of Aging Population on Taiwan’s Healthcare System.”

Taiwan News: “Taiwan’s Aging Population Poses Challenge to Pension System.”

Focus Taiwan: “Addressing Taiwan’s Demographic Challenges: An Economic Perspective.”