That is, the GoI recommends national school education policies and programmes, but state governments have a lot of leeway in executing them. The policy is announced at the national level on a regular basis. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), established in 1935, continues to play an important role in the development and supervision of educational policies and programmes.
The National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is a national institution that produces a National Curriculum Framework and plays a significant role in formulating policies and programmes. Each state has its own State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT). These are the organisations that develop educational methods, curricula, instructional techniques, and evaluation procedures.
The SCERTs typically adhere to the NCERT’s requirements. Nonetheless, governments have significant latitude in administering the education system.
The 1986 National Policy on Education and the 1992 Programme of Action (POA) both envisioned free and compulsory education of adequate quality for all children under the age of 14 by the twenty-first century. The government pledged to allocate 6% of GDP to education, with half of that amount going towards basic education. Education spending as a proportion of GDP increased from 0.7% in 1951-52 to over 3.6 per cent in 1997-98. In India, there are four stages of education: lower elementary (ages 6 to 10), upper primary (ages 11 and 12), high (13 to 15), and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower elementary school has five “standards,” upper primary school has two, high school has three, and higher secondary school has two.