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It is said that in ancient India there was a Gurukula system of education in which anyone who wished to study would have to travel to a teacher’s house (Guru) and request that they be taught. The guru would then accept him as a student and have him stay at his house and help with all his activities. As a result, the teacher had a close relationship with the student, and the student learned everything he needed to know about controlling a household. Sanskrit, the holy scriptures, mathematics, and metaphysics were all taught by the Guru. The student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach. Nature and life were closely intertwined with all learning, and not just memorizing.
India is split into 28 states and 7 so-called “Union Territories”. The Union Territories are controlled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory. According to the Indian constitution, school education was initially a state subject, which meant that the states had entire power over policy decisions and implementation. The Government of India’s (GoI) participation was confined to coordinating and deciding on higher education standards. This was altered by a constitutional amendment in 1976, which included education to the so-called concurrent list.

That is, the GoI recommends national school education policies and programmes, but state governments have a lot of leeway in executing them. The policy is announced at the national level on a regular basis. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), established in 1935, continues to play an important role in the development and supervision of educational policies and programmes.

The National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is a national institution that produces a National Curriculum Framework and plays a significant role in formulating policies and programmes. Each state has its own State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT). These are the organisations that develop educational methods, curricula, instructional techniques, and evaluation procedures.

The SCERTs typically adhere to the NCERT’s requirements. Nonetheless, governments have significant latitude in administering the education system.

The 1986 National Policy on Education and the 1992 Programme of Action (POA) both envisioned free and compulsory education of adequate quality for all children under the age of 14 by the twenty-first century. The government pledged to allocate 6% of GDP to education, with half of that amount going towards basic education. Education spending as a proportion of GDP increased from 0.7% in 1951-52 to over 3.6 per cent in 1997-98. In India, there are four stages of education: lower elementary (ages 6 to 10), upper primary (ages 11 and 12), high (13 to 15), and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower elementary school has five “standards,” upper primary school has two, high school has three, and higher secondary school has two.