Turkey, or officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country with most of its territory in Anatolia and a small part in Thrace, the southeastern extension of the Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Bulgaria in the northwest, Greece in the west, Georgia in the northeast, Nakhchivan, the exclave land of Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan in the east, and Iraq and Syria in the southeast. It is surrounded by the island of Cyprus and the Mediterranean in the south, the Aegean Sea in the west and the Black Sea in the north. The Sea of Marmara, along with the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, separates Anatolia from Thrace, that is, Asia from Europe. Turkey has an important geostrategic power as it is located at the crossroads of the European and Asian continents.
The first settlements on Turkish soil begin in the Paleolithic Age. After various ancient Anatolian civilizations such as the Thracians in Eastern Thrace, the Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians and the Ionian civilization founded by the Achaeans who fled from Greece as a result of the Doric invasion, the Hellenistic Period began with the sovereignty and conquests of Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia. Then, there were the Roman Empire and Byzantine periods, when Anatolia became Christian.
The Turkish Grand National Assembly was established in Ankara on April 23, 1920, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the closure of the Parliament as a result of the Allied Powers’ occupation of Istanbul and the deportation of some of its deputies on March 16, 1920. Under his leadership, the War of Independence (1919-1922) against the occupying forces was successful, and with the abolition of the sultanate by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on November 1, 1922, the Ottoman monarchy and the Ottoman Empire became history. After the proclamation of the republic on October 29, 1923, and the abolition of the caliphate on March 3, 1924, and the exile of the Ottoman Dynasty abroad, a series of revolutions took place that would have an important place in the formation of modern Turkey.